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While it is difficult to find relics from nine centuries ago, knowledge of the symbols and their meanings have fortunately not been lost to time.
Knight Templar Seal Source: www. Grand Masters frequently used this as one of their seals in the period — So, what exactly does this image represent?
There is no definite answer but there are some interesting theories. Some believe it to represent a "buddy system" where knights would operate in pairs.
You would find the cross emblazoned upon the mantle. This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking and may have been the first formal system to support the use of cheques ; it improved the safety of pilgrims by making them less attractive targets for thieves, and also contributed to the Templar coffers.
Based on this mix of donations and business dealing, the Templars established financial networks across the whole of Christendom.
They acquired large tracts of land, both in Europe and the Middle East; they bought and managed farms and vineyards; they built massive stone cathedrals and castles; they were involved in manufacturing, import and export; they had their own fleet of ships; and at one point they even owned the entire island of Cyprus.
The Order of the Knights Templar arguably qualifies as the world's first multinational corporation.
In the midth century, the tide began to turn in the Crusades. The Islamic world had become more united under effective leaders such as Saladin.
Dissension arose among Christian factions in and concerning the Holy Land. The Knights Templar were occasionally at odds with the two other Christian military orders , the Knights Hospitaller and the Teutonic Knights , and decades of internecine feuds weakened Christian positions, both politically and militarily.
After the Templars were involved in several unsuccessful campaigns, including the pivotal Battle of Hattin , Jerusalem was recaptured by Muslim forces under Saladin in The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II reclaimed the city for Christians in the Sixth Crusade of , without Templar aid, but only held it for a little more than a decade.
In , the Ayyubid dynasty together with Khwarezmi mercenaries recaptured Jerusalem, and the city did not return to Western control until when, during World War I , the British captured it from the Ottoman Empire.
The Templars were forced to relocate their headquarters to other cities in the north, such as the seaport of Acre , which they held for the next century.
It was lost in , followed by their last mainland strongholds, Tortosa Tartus in what is now Syria and Atlit in present-day Israel.
Their headquarters then moved to Limassol on the island of Cyprus,  and they also attempted to maintain a garrison on tiny Arwad Island , just off the coast from Tortosa.
In , there was some attempt to engage in coordinated military efforts with the Mongols  via a new invasion force at Arwad. In or , however, the Templars lost the island to the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate in the Siege of Arwad.
With the island gone, the Crusaders lost their last foothold in the Holy Land. With the order's military mission now less important, support for the organization began to dwindle.
The situation was complex, however, since during the two hundred years of their existence, the Templars had become a part of daily life throughout Christendom.
The order was still not subject to local government, making it everywhere a "state within a state" — its standing army , though it no longer had a well-defined mission, could pass freely through all borders.
This situation heightened tensions with some European nobility, especially as the Templars were indicating an interest in founding their own monastic state, just as the Teutonic Knights had done in Prussia  and the Knights Hospitaller were doing in Rhodes.
In , the new Pope Clement V , based in Avignon , France, sent letters to both the Templar Grand Master Jacques de Molay and the Hospitaller Grand Master Fulk de Villaret to discuss the possibility of merging the two orders.
Neither was amenable to the idea, but Pope Clement persisted, and in he invited both Grand Masters to France to discuss the matter.
De Molay arrived first in early , but de Villaret was delayed for several months. While waiting, De Molay and Clement discussed criminal charges that had been made two years earlier by an ousted Templar and were being discussed by King Philip IV of France and his ministers.
It was generally agreed that the charges were false, but Clement sent the king a written request for assistance in the investigation.
According to some historians, King Philip, who was already deeply in debt to the Templars from his war against England , decided to seize upon the rumours for his own purposes.
He began pressuring the church to take action against the order, as a way of freeing himself from his debts. At dawn on Friday, 13 October a date sometimes linked with the origin of the Friday the 13th superstition   King Philip IV ordered de Molay and scores of other French Templars to be simultaneously arrested.
The arrest warrant started with the phrase: "Dieu n'est pas content, nous avons des ennemis de la foi dans le Royaume" ["God is not pleased.
We have enemies of the faith in the kingdom"]. The Templars were accused of idolatry and were suspected of worshiping either a figure known as Baphomet or a mummified severed head they recovered, amongst other artifacts, at their original headquarters on the Temple Mount that many scholars theorize might have been that of John the Baptist , among other things.
Relenting to Phillip's demands, Pope Clement then issued the papal bull Pastoralis praeeminentiae on 22 November , which instructed all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize their assets.
Some had sufficient legal experience to defend themselves in the trials , but in , having appointed the archbishop of Sens , Philippe de Marigny, to lead the investigation, Philip blocked this attempt, using the previously forced confessions to have dozens of Templars burned at the stake in Paris.
With Philip threatening military action unless the pope complied with his wishes, Pope Clement finally agreed to disband the order, citing the public scandal that had been generated by the confessions.
At the Council of Vienne in , he issued a series of papal bulls, including Vox in excelso , which officially dissolved the order, and Ad providam , which turned over most Templar assets to the Hospitallers.
As for the leaders of the order, the elderly Grand Master Jacques de Molay, who had confessed under torture, retracted his confession. Geoffroi de Charney , Preceptor of Normandy , also retracted his confession and insisted on his innocence.
Both men were declared guilty of being relapsed heretics, and they were sentenced to burn alive at the stake in Paris on 18 March De Molay reportedly remained defiant to the end, asking to be tied in such a way that he could face the Notre Dame Cathedral and hold his hands together in prayer.
Soon a calamity will occur to those who have condemned us to death". The remaining Templars around Europe were either arrested and tried under the Papal investigation with virtually none convicted , absorbed into other Catholic military orders, or pensioned off and allowed to live out their days peacefully.
By papal decree, the property of the Templars was transferred to the Knights Hospitaller except in the Kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, and Portugal.
The Portuguese king, Denis I , refused to pursue and persecute the former knights, as had occurred in all other sovereign states under the influence of the Catholic Church.
Under his protection, Templar organizations simply changed their name, from "Knights Templar" to the reconstituted Order of Christ and also a parallel Supreme Order of Christ of the Holy See ; both are considered successors to the Knights Templar.
In September , a document known as the Chinon Parchment dated 17—20 August was discovered in the Vatican Secret Archives by Barbara Frale , apparently after having been filed in the wrong place in It is a record of the trial of the Templars and shows that Clement absolved the Templars of all heresies in before formally disbanding the order in ,  as did another Chinon Parchment dated 20 August addressed to Philip IV of France, also mentioning that all Templars that had confessed to heresy were "restored to the Sacraments and to the unity of the Church".
The current position of the Roman Catholic Church is that the medieval persecution of the Knights Templar was unjust, that nothing was inherently wrong with the order or its rule, and that Pope Clement was pressed into his actions by the magnitude of the public scandal and by the dominating influence of King Philip IV, who was Clement's relative.
The Templars were organized as a monastic order similar to Bernard's Cistercian Order, which was considered the first effective international organization in Europe.
Each country with a major Templar presence France, Poitou , Anjou , Jerusalem, England , Aragon Spain , Portugal , Italy , Tripoli , Antioch , Hungary , and Croatia  had a Master of the Order for the Templars in that region.
All of them were subject to the Grand Master, appointed for life, who oversaw both the order's military efforts in the East and their financial holdings in the West.
The Grand Master exercised his authority via the visitors-general of the order, who were knights specially appointed by the Grand Master and convent of Jerusalem to visit the different provinces, correct malpractices, introduce new regulations, and resolve important disputes.
The visitors-general had the power to remove knights from office and to suspend the Master of the province concerned.
No precise numbers exist, but it is estimated that at the order's peak there were between 15, and 20, Templars, of whom about a tenth were actual knights.
There was a threefold division of the ranks of the Templars: the noble knights, the non-noble sergeants, and the chaplains. The Templars did not perform knighting ceremonies, so any knight wishing to become a Knight Templar had to be a knight already.
Squires were generally not members of the order but were instead outsiders who were hired for a set period of time. Beneath the knights in the order and drawn from non-noble families were the sergeants.
In the Crusader States , they fought alongside the knights as light cavalry with a single horse. The sergeants wore black or brown.
From , chaplains constituted a third Templar class. They were ordained priests who cared for the Templars' spiritual needs.
Starting with founder Hugues de Payens in —, the order's highest office was that of Grand Master, a position which was held for life, though considering the martial nature of the order, this could mean a very short tenure.
All but two of the Grand Masters died in office, and several died during military campaigns. For example, during the Siege of Ascalon in , Grand Master Bernard de Tremelay led a group of 40 Templars through a breach in the city walls.
When the rest of the Crusader army did not follow, the Templars, including their Grand Master, were surrounded and beheaded.
The Grand Master oversaw all of the operations of the order, including both the military operations in the Holy Land and Eastern Europe and the Templars' financial and business dealings in Western Europe.
Some Grand Masters also served as battlefield commanders, though this was not always wise: several blunders in de Ridefort's combat leadership contributed to the devastating defeat at the Battle of Hattin.
The last Grand Master was Jacques de Molay , burned at the stake in Paris in by order of King Philip IV. Bernard de Clairvaux and founder Hugues de Payens devised a specific code of conduct for the Templar Order, known to modern historians as the Latin Rule.
Its 72 clauses laid down the details of the knights' way of life, including the types of garments they were to wear and how many horses they could have.
Knights were to take their meals in silence, eat meat no more than three times per week, and not have physical contact of any kind with women, even members of their own family.
A Master of the Order was assigned "4 horses, and one chaplain-brother and one clerk with three horses, and one sergeant brother with two horses, and one gentleman valet to carry his shield and lance, with one horse".
The knights wore a white surcoat with a red cross, and a white mantle also with a red cross; the sergeants wore a black tunic with a red cross on the front and a black or brown mantle.